All commands are in lower case. For extended explanations, consult any
good unix books. Also, in many cases, you may type "man command" to
see the online manual for that command.
Throughout this manual, we'll be dealing with a fictional domain called
0. Logging on to a server.
"telnet" to the server and log in using your userid. Btw, you cannot
log in as "root", so don't even try.
1. Copying files
Type "cp file1 file2" to copy "file1" to "file2".
2. Moving a file to another directory.
Type "mv file1 /www/monkey" to move "file1" to the /www/monkey directory.
3. Becoming a superuser (root) or any other user.
Type "su - userid". Or just type "su -" to become root. When you're
root, you can become any user without typing the password. You need
to be root to run certain programs such as "account".
-DO NOT *EVER* RUN AN UNKNOWN PROGRAM AS ROOT...ESPECIALLY IF IT'S FOUND
SOME USERS DIRECTORY. IT MAY VERY WELL DAMAGE THE SERVER.
-Do not add/modify any programs outside of the following directories.
If the monitoring program detects any change, it will assume a hacker
has broken in. This is not good because it will proceed to kick everyone
out and shut down all non-vital programs. No one will be able to log
in from the network.
is an all purpose (or at least it tries to be) program for managing
Most of it should be self explanatory. Nevertheless, let's briefly go
through each Of the options.
Note: Everything must be entered in lower case. The only exception is
the password. Also, some of the options may not exist.
Type "account" to run the program.
1. Add a new domain
Choose this to add a new domain. Let's add the domain "king.com"
Your choice? 1
Full domain name? king.com
who is the owner(username) of the domain?[king]:
This is the "main" or "master" userid for king.com. This userid will
control the domain. Note that this userid(or any telnet/email/ftp user
for that matter) must be unique. If another domain already has a user
called "king", you must choose another name. Just hit return if you
Full name(can be blank):
Usually left blank.
Make sure the password is not an easy word. Throw in upper case characters
and numbers. Number of characters should be
between 6 - 8.
Just hit return.
Select disk quota for this domain:
Your choice ?: h
Default email address in .redirect [email@example.com]:
You would normally just hit return here.
Install full business site scripts?[y/n]:y
This will install cgi scripts such as Guestbook, bulletin boards, text
Install frontpage(using the above username/password)?[y/n]:n
Choose "y" to install frontpage.
Disk quota: 150 megs
Default email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Basic site scripts: Yes
Satisfied with the above choices?[y/n]
Choose "n" if you made a mistake.
(Btw, by default, all domains will have their own group. In this case,
the group is "kinggrp". All new users added to king.com will automatically
belong to the group "kinggrp".)
2. Add a new user.
This will give a full telnet/ftp/email access to a user. Choose this
if they specifically ask for a telnet/shell access. If they only ask
for an email or ftp account, choose one of options below.
3. Setup menu
1. Install FrontPage.
2. Create an mSQL database.
3. Add a majordomo list.
1. Regular list.
Choose this to create a majordomo list. This is what you choose if a
customer ask you to create a majordomo list. Let's create a typical
list called "cow" for king.com.
Name of the regular mailing list? cow
owner's address?() email@example.com
Moderated? (y/n) n
Closed? (y/n) n
2. Make a digest.
Choose this to make a digest for a list. Make sure the "regular" list
Btw, at this point, if you need to remove a list, it must be done manually.
Remove the appropriate entries from "/etc/da" and "/etc/aliases".
One more note, the list name must be unique for each server. For example,
if king.com has a list called "cow", then no other domain on that server
can have a list called "cow". The program will now check for this.
4. Add an Email only account(POP access).
Choose this for pop/email account.
5. Delete/modify user/domain.
1. Delete a user.
This will delete any telnet/ftp/email account.
2. Wipe out a domain.
3. Modify user's name.
Choose this to change a user's name.
6. Add members to an existing group.
7. Add/modify disk quotas.
8. Update nameserver only.
Normally, this option should not be used. Only use if a domain doesn't
seem to be in the nameserver...or if the nameserver info is wrong for
9. Add an ftp only account.
11. Point domain A to domain B.
Choose this if a customer wants to point a new domain to point to an
existing domain. The "master" domain may have as many "aliases" as possible.
Essentially, the alias domains will be identical to the master domain.
The only difference will be the name.
12. Move domain.
Choose this to move a domain from one server to another.
Contents of the directory
/ base(or root) directory of the file system.
/www contains all the web stuff.
/www/conf web server config files.
/www/logs web transfer logs. Logs are trimmed every week.
/www/logs/archive old logs.
/ftp/logs ftp transfer logs.
/www/realaudio realaudio files.
/www/king main web directory for king.com
/ftp/king main ANONYMOUS ftp dir for king.com
/home/bob home directory of "bob"
/etc server config files.
/usr/local any software we add will need to be installed in here.
/root root's home dir.(note it's not /home/root)
/var/spool/mail contains incoming emails for all the users.
Let's look at some of the above dirs in detail.
/www/king/cgi-bin king.com's cgi programs.
/www/king/wusage wusage files
/ftp/king/incoming anonymous ftp users may upload to this dir only.
/home/bob/infobots infobots files
/home/bob/maillists mailing list files
/etc/backup contains backups of important files.
/usr/local/pnserver realaudio binaries
/usr/local/Hughes mSQL stuff
/usr/local/frontpage frontpage stuff
/usr/local/majordomo majordomo files
/usr/local/ssl secure server stuff
NOT edit these files unless you absolutely know what you're doing*
*You should never need to edit the files below under normal circumstances*
Most servers will function happily without you ever looking at them.
/etc/passwd Contains all the users for that server.
/etc/shadow Contains encrypted passwords for the above users.
/etc/group Lists all the groups and their members. You can use
this file to find out who belongs to which domain.
/etc/da mail forwarding info. mail is forwarded from an address
in the first column to the address in the second column.
/etc/da2 Works the same way as /etc/da. This is the file
that contains all(and only) the .redirect files on that server.
/etc/aliases Contains the aliases for the majordomo lists...and some
other stuff you probably never need to worry about.
/etc/domains Lists all the regular domains on that server.
/etc/domains2 Lists the domain "aliases" and the "master" domains
that they're pointing to.(option #11 in the account prog)
/etc/.ipaliases.data All the IP #s on that server.
/etc/named/ipnums Available IP #s.
/www/conf/httpd.conf Config file for the apache web server.
(Ideally, this part should be a separate file).
General information about our servers:
Operating system: Red Hat Linux 5.2 (CUSTOM)
Web server: Apache 1.3.4
mSQL server: version 2.0.3
Frontpage: version 22.214.171.124 (FrontPage 2000)
Majordomo server: version 1.94.3
1. How do i change a user's password?
Type "passwd someusername"
2. A customer forgot the password. How do I find out what it was?
You can't. Just change it to something else.
3. How do i restart the web server?
Type "httpd.reload". This will gracefully restart the server. In most
cases, this is all that's necessary. There is also a more forceful method
of restarting the server. Use this method if the server goes crazy or
something. "httpd.restart" will completely kill the current server and
and then restart it. Be careful with restarting the web server....it
may take up to 30 secs or more to restart and no one will be able to
connect to the server during that time. Also, restarting the web server
is especially bad for frontpage users. They will get a timeout error
message if they were in the process of publishing to the web....they
may also get some other weird errors.
4. How do I restart sendmail?
Type "sendmail.reload". Run this if mail system seems to be behaving
weird. Running this shouldn't hurt anything.
5. How do I change the message that gets displayed when I first telnet
6. How do i edit files online(from telnet)?
Type "pico filename". There are other editors, but pico is the simplest.
7. I don't want to change anything, I just want to view some text
Type "more filename". Press the space bar to continue.
8. How do I read my emails from a telnet session?
9. Who is currently logged on(telnet logins only)?
10. What about the ftp users?
11. My connection seems to be bad, how do i check it?
You can use "ping" and "traceroute".
Look at the times(in miliseconds). Just use them and you should be able
figure out how to interpret the output.
By the way, Windows 98/2000 also has these commands("ping" and "tracert")
12. How do I check what processes are currently running?
Type "ps aux"
12.a How do I check the memory?
Type "free". example:
total used free shared buffers cached
Mem: 127936 126156 1780 423944 8888 30024
-/+ buffers: 87244 40692
Swap: 130748 5028 125720
Here, 87244 Kbytes of memory are in use, and 40,692 Kbytes are free.
There should always be enough free memory available...if not, it's probably
time to upgrade. The amount of memory needed depends on how many domains
there are and how busy they are.
13. How do i easily kill a user and any programs he's running?
Type "killuser userid". This command is useful if the user is running
tons of programs at the same time, or if you want to force a user to
be logged off. The "userid" is the first eight characters of the true
userid, or whatever shows up when you do "ps aux".
14. How do I add cronjobs?(For root cron jobs only)
Edit /root/cronfile. After you add the new entry, type "crontab cronfile".
Here are some sample entries:
* * * * * /usr/bin/someprogram
Run /usr/bin/someprogram every minute, everyday.
06 * * * * /usr/bin/someprogram
Run it everyday, every hour, at 06 minute.
06 17 * * * /usr/bin/someprogram
Run it everyday at 17:06
06 17 * * 0 /usr/bin/someprogram
Run it every SUNDAY at 17:06